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Reinforced Concrete Construction Failures.  3.1 MB, 28 pages, Reinforced concrete design mistakes an execution errors, including lack of inspection results often in fatal building collapse with earthquakes. Several cases are reviewed and commented. Education and improvement in the production chain of architect, engineer, contractor, worker, inspector and principal is required. Establishment of building codes and complimentory legal and sanctioning system is needed.

Seismic Building Codes in the Himalaya Region. Questions & Answers related to the 2015 Nepal Earthquake. (report, May 2016). 37 pages. 3.3 MB .  Where do these earthquakes occur?  What is the purpose of the seismic code and the relation with the building code?  What are the differences between seismic codes of other countries?  What variables exist in a seismic code?  What technical and/or administrative measurements need to be taken to make the code effective?  How does this information translate to a country as Nepal ? 

Technical Working Paper #12 on Earthquake Retrofitting Non-Engineered Low-Rise Buildings. Including non-engineered retrofitting of traditional Pamiri Houses in Pakistan and Tajikistan. 5.3 MB, 50 pages.  Examples of retrofitting of stone constructed houses in the Himalayas of Pakistan, using simple construction techniques.

 Galvanised Wire-mesh Reinforcement  (GWR) for traditional dressed stone construction houses in the Himalayas Galvanised Wire Mesh Reinforcement is explained in this paper. 4.2 MB, 35 pages Oct. 2010  The use of galvanised wire wall reinforcement reduces the need for high cement concentration in dressed stone masonry and lowers the transport and construction costs in remote mountain areas.

Design for Primary Mountain Schools in Remote Areas 6MB,45 pag. making them lightweight, thus better earthquake resistant. The buildings had an improved internal climate through solar heat intake, double glass and thermal roof/wall insulation.  2008.

After the Kashmir earthquake (2005) basic findings and recommendation are presented. .Mission Report, Earthquake damage Kashmir, including details about GWR. 3.3 MB, 24 pages. From the post earthquake surveys it was concluded than about half of the building failures were caused by inadequate foundations and constructions on non-stabilized slopes. Poor reinforced concrete design and non-adherence to the earthquake code proofed here to be a major cause for fatal building collapse.

A-Frame Timber School Chair Design. 14 pages, 1.68 MB (Oct. 2013)   HA-doc. Strong (Timber) School Chair for Schools not yet Seismically Strengthened.  Simple to construct from straight timber sections. A few dozen in a classroom will hold up a collapsing roof to allow evacuation of school children.



Technical Advise Earthquake Reconstruction, 13 December 1982 earthquake In Yemen Arab Republic . Improved  building system for the Dhamar aided self-help reconstruction project (1983-1985). Seismic reinforced stone construction. Dhamar site selection 3.7MB, 15 pages.   Simple guidelines for site selection in mountainous areas, illustrated with sketches,  Arab language text.     

Foreman Manual, section One, Foundations. 6.7 MB, 40 pages, all illustrations.  Step-by-step illustrated construction manual for self-help construction of earthquake resistant core-house with reinforced  stone masonry. Criteria for site selection, mixing of mortar and reinforcement. Arabic language text.

Foreman Manuel, section Two, Walls. 6.6 MB, 35 pages, all illustrations. Step-by-step illustrated manual for self-help construction of earthquake resistant core-house with reinforced  stone masonry. Criteria for wall construction using prefabricated steel door and window frames. Mixing of mortar and application of wall reinforcement. Arabic text.

 Foreman Manual, section Three, Roof level. 6.8 MB, 30 pages, all illustrations. Step-by-step illustrated construction manual for self-help construction of earthquake resistant core-house with reinforced  stone masonry. Criteria for roof construction, diaphragm, waterproofing and drainage. Mixing of mortar and reinforcement. Arabic language text.

Foreman Manual, section Four, Completion.   6.15 MB. 20 pages Step-by-step illustrated construction manual for self-help construction in earthquake resistant core-house with reinforced masonry. Criteria for roof construction and thermal insulation. Arabic language text.

 YAR Building Techniques Report 5. 14.2 MB, 60 pages illustrated. 1984  Seismic resistant building techniques for dressed stone architecture, using hand cast sand cement U-blocks for wall endings and tie-beams. Low-cost core-house design for assisted self-help construction. Low use of cement. Strong roof diaphragm. Nagron wire cage technology for prefabricated, plastered rubble stone houses.

Dhamar aided self-help reconstruction project:  End Evaluation Report. EU, PDAAV497 ,  0.74 MB, 21 pages. Black & White scan.  Review of European commission members after the design and implementation of several housing projects in the Dhamar  region after the 1982-1984 earthquake reconstruction period.

 Historic temple in Nepal 2003. Reconstruction and Retrofitting of Historic Pagoda Temples. 3.4MB, 39 pages.   Existing and alternative solutions related to reducing its weight and improving stability. 

Tsunami reconstruction after the 26 December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka (Jaffna and Mullaitivu districts) and Indonesia (Banda Aceh province and Nias Island).  In Indonesia (Banda Aceh, 2007). Assessment on the engineering of the post-tsunami reconstruction.

Earthquake resistant construction methods Pakistan and Tajikistan (1999-2011), Indonesia (2005) and Nepal (2001-2003) Technical Advice Reinforced Concrete Construction Aceh (2007), 2.6 MB, 30 pag. In Banda Aceh, 2006. tsunami reconstruction projects were visited and evaluated. Most new buildings were of good standards, but some common errors in reinforced concrete design were detected.